Type 2 diabetes is associated with numerous long-term complications. This study aims to investigate whether impaired function of tissue-resident multipotent cells play role in pathogenesis of allied complications. Adipose-tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) derived from nondiabetic (nASCs) and diabetic (dASCs) donors were compared with regard to glucose metabolism, cell replication, apoptosis, and differentiation potential. The data evidenced that elevation of glucose reduces proliferative capacity of both dASCs and nASCs, but impacts dASCs more significantly. Incorporation of insulin enhanced cell replication especially in nASCs. dASCs show higher levels of cellular senescence and apoptosis than nASCs. Unlike nASCs, apoptosis is induced via intrinsic pathway in dASCs. Data also evidenced that high glucose concentrations cause prominent disparities in nASCs and dASCs in expression of genes involved in insulin resistance such as adiponectin and resistin. Some changes in gene expression were irreversible in dASCs when treated with insulin. Additionally, high glucose concentrations reduce osteogenic and chondrogenic potential of ASCs, but enhance adipogenic potential. These results indicate that in addition to involvement in insulin resistance, impaired function of mesenchymal stem cells that reside in adipose tissue as one of the major sources of adult stem cells might be responsible for complications related to diabetes type 2.

©2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.